BCI means BRAIN -COMPUTER-INTERFACE. It collects the brain signals and analyses them or amplify the signals into commands to connected device and lastly gives the output of brain functioning.
BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE also known as brain machine interface (BMI) , the technology mostly used in the BCI is NONINVASIVE-EEG technology. BCI is the process of direct link between the human brain and an external computer.
BCI was started by HAN’S BERGER, he recorded the electrical activity of the human brain in 1924 with help of the ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY (EEG). EEG is mostly is used in the medical field to see and analyze the brain wave activity of the patients. Thera are two types of the BCI’s are there 1.NON-INVASIVE BCI and 2. INVASIVE BCI.
NON-INVASIVE- BRAIN- COMPUTER -INTERFACE is a device that allows the users to send messages to the brain and receive the commands to device which works on the principle of EEG, an EEG performed by attaching multiple electrodes to the scalp of the users. It measures voltage fluctuations in the brain caused by the ionic current.
And the second type is INVASIVE-BCI, which works on the principle of ELECTROCORTICOGRAPHY (ECOG), means placing the electrode directly on the brain. In INVASIVE-BCI involves the surgical implantation of a device into the skull of the user. An electrode plate is kept directly in the brain surface, with help of the ECOG, which measures the electrical activity of the cerebral cortex. This procedure is usually done under the general aesthesia if they want patient interaction. Electrodes sit lightly on the cortical surface. And they are designed with enough flexibility to ensure that regular movements of the brain. And brain do not cause any injury with is process.
Mostly BCI is used in physically disabled persons to interact with them. And accomplishes the patient’s intent.